Biodiversity

  • Areas undergoing restoration

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    • wdt_ID Areas under restoration process per unit - 2019¹ São Paulo Mato Grosso do Sul Espírito Santo-Bahia Maranhão Total
      1 Total area undergoing restoration process per unit² 54 108 458 58 678
      2 Total number of seedlings planted for restoration 390,000 49,800 9,980,000 15,200 10,435,000
      3 Size of area undergoing restoration process (km²) 115.28 6.38 202.30 1.23 325.20
      4 Size of area undergoing restoration process (hectares) 11,528.00 638.88 20,229.90 122.76 32,519.54

    1. The indicator considers the consolidated total restored up to 2019.

    2. São Paulo considers 54 areas, while Mato Grosso do Sul and Maranhão consider polygons; and Espírito Santo-Bahia, farms.

  • Biodiversity management in forestry operations

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    Context:

    Biodiversity management at Suzano relies on a Biodiversity Monitoring Plan and a specific procedure on Assessment and Monitoring of High Conservation Value Areas – HCVAs (where we monitor biodiversity). In addition, we have established goals and indicators focused on biodiversity conservation and specific documents for the units, such as the Environmental Restoration Guide and the Management Guide for Conservation of Protected Areas.

    The Biodiversity Monitoring Plan involves:

    • the representativeness of monitoring at landscape level;
    • the definition of bioindicators (bird and mammalian species and tree vegetation);
    • the standard of biodiversity monitoring.

     

    The HCVA Monitoring Plan, on the other hand, presents the monitoring indicators, potential risks to the identified high-value attributes for biodiversity and the necessary protection measures.

     

    External commitments and partnerships

    To ensure careful and efficient management, Suzano adopts different approaches to conservation and restoration processes. In this sense, the company participates in the Sustainable Forest Mosaics Initiative (IMFS), which integrates planning and implementation of land use and conservation activities together with NGOs and other companies in the sector. The initiative also includes elements of conservation in forest development programs (incentives, credit and private technical assistance to support forestry activities by other rural landowners).

    Based on constantly debated and improved actions being implemented by companies and organizations, (as the Forest Forum of the Extreme South of Bahia, a local instance of the Forestry Dialogue), IMFS aims to increase the effectiveness of biodiversity conservation efforts in forest mosaics that combine native remnant and planted forests. With regard to the Restoration Program, IMFS determined priority areas for the Program’s work, in order to form connections between important natural areas, such as Conservation Units and large and well-preserved forest fragments.

    With the Laboratory of Ecology and Forest Restoration and the Laboratory of Tropical Forestry, both from the University of São Paulo (USP), located in Piracicaba (São Paulo state), the company has maintained a technical partnership since the beginning of its Restoration Program, in the 1990s, seeking to improve methodologies, partnerships to work on the selection of species and other issues of relevance to the management of the topic.

    Joint work with other entities, such as non-governmental organizations (NGOs), Forest Dialogue and universities, is an essential part of this process. From these partnerships, new methodologies for restoration, protection, conservation and monitoring are created, analyzed and tested, aiming to promote improvements in management efficiency, reduce impacts, generate new work opportunities and share knowledge.

    Signing of the Pact for the Restoration of the Atlantic Rainforest, which provides for the recovery of 15 million hectares of forests in the country by 2050, is a clear example of Suzano’s willingness to establish solid partnerships. More than 100 institutions and companies take part in this initiative, which will contribute to the restoration of an important portion of native vegetation cover in the biome. Based on the pact, Suzano put into practice a field test in an area of 11.3 hectares of its property, in Aracruz (Espírito Santo state), where 40 native species of Atlantic Rainforest and eucalyptus were planted in June 2011. This experiment is intended to develop and test eight planting models with native species, including the use of eucalyptus as a pioneer species to guarantee economic yield in areas of Legal Reserve (RL) and areas with low agricultural potential in northern Espírito Santo and southern Bahia.

    The company also has a partnership with The Nature Conservancy (TNC). In its 12th year, the initiative consists of implementing ecological monitoring in the areas of restoration. This partnership already provides a large database to analyze the efficiency of restoration methods and techniques, as well as for the sharing of technology.

    Suzano still adheres to the Alliance for the Restoration of the Amazon, a pact for the conservation of this biome, which today is considered the largest biodiversity reserve on the planet. Restoring the Amazon Rainforest is the priority action of the Alliance and also for its founding organizations (among which are civil society organizations, government institutions, research institutions and companies), also seeking to boost the economy of forest restoration in this biome and promote all links in this production chain, generating business, work and income opportunities.

    The company also has partnerships that focus on the conservation of key species, such as:

    • scientific research on the black lion tamarin (Leotopithecus chrysopygus) at Rio Claro farm, in Lençóis Paulista (São Paulo state). Partnership with Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) in Rio Claro;
    • ecology and behavior of the southern muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides) in a remnant of Atlantic Rainforest in the Environmental Protection Area (APA) Serra da Mantiqueira, at the São Sebastião do Ribeirão Grande Farm, in Pindamonhangaba (São Paulo state). Partnership with Instituto Pro Muriqui;
    • study on the occurrence of the marsh antwren (Formicivora paludicola) at Fazenda Putim, in Guararema (São Paulo state). Partnership with Save Brasil.

     

    Partnerships that are also fundamental for the promotion of regional territorial development – therefore, for the maintenance of biodiversity – are those initiatives with vulnerable rural communities, to perform operational activities necessary for the implementation and maintenance of areas for restoration and production of native seedlings used in our programs. The seedlings are purchased from commercial and community nurseries, such as the Social Nursery Meninos da Terra, in Linhares (Espírito Santo state), and the Community Nursery of the Arboretum Program, located in the Rio Preto National Forest, in Conceição da Barra (Espírito Santo state).

     

    Management and identification of risks and opportunities

    Management of biodiversity at Suzano and the risks related to it is also monitored through external audits, in accordance with responsible forest management standards FSC® (Forest Stewardship Council®)¹ and PEFC/CERFLOR (Brazilian Forest Certification Program), as well as the following internal processes:

    • internal audits;
    • Partnership for Sustainability (PPS) – regular checks concerning knowledge of environmental issues and compliance with auditing principles and internal standards in the area;
    • anthropic monitoring of environmental events by a specialized team;
    • property surveillance, which, in addition to registering occurrences, takes protective measures to control hunting, predatory fishing, flora thefts, deforestation and fires;
    • matrix of Environmental Aspects and Impacts.

     

    In addition, to reduce, prevent and mitigate the impacts arising from these operations, the following actions are planned:

    • microplanning of forestry operations (environmental recommendations, mosaic cutting);
    • Pre and Post-Operation Monitoring of Forestry, Harvesting and Logistics;
    • Management of Environmental Aspects and Impacts related to Forestry, Harvest and Logistics operation;
    • Environmental Training Program for employees and communities;
    • obtain knowledge to improve the management of the topic;
    • Emergency Control and Fire Fighting Program;
    • Property Surveillance and Integrated Forest Protection System;
    • Monitoring of Wildlife and Flora, and Water Resources;
    • Monitoring of Social and Environmental Events;
    • Waste Disposal Management;
    • compliance with sustainability commitments assumed by the company, forest certification requirements, legal demands (especially conditions for Environmental permits), international agreements (such as the Convention on Biological Diversity – CDB and World Business Council for Sustainable Development – WBCSD), and sector and multilateral agreements (as the Sustainable Forest Mosaics Project).

     

    Regarding monitoring actions, the development and changes in components and parameters of the landscape and of the communities of wildlife and flora are also monitored, in order to assess in greater detail the effects of our forest management on the environment and, from there, promote the identification of opportunities for improvement.

     

    1. Forest management certificates: FSC-C110130, FSC-C118283, FSC-C100704, FSC-C009927 e FSC-C155943; and chain of custody certificate FSC-C010014.

  • Location and size of operational sites owned, leased, managed in, or adjacent to, protected areas and areas of high biodiversity value outside protected areas

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    • wdt_ID Location and size of operational sites owned, leased, managed in, or adjacent to, protected areas and areas of high biodiversity value outside protected areas - 2019¹ Own, leased, partnership areas, in ha Own, leased, partnership areas, in km²
      1 Within 80,064.42 800.64
      2 Adjacent 196,256.64 1,962.57

    1. In line with the concept of the indicator, Suzano adopts the buffer zone criterion to calculate adjacency. This criterion also applies to the ecological purpose of the buffer zones. In the 2012 analysis, a new definition for buffer was used for Conservation Units without a management plan. According to CONAMA Resolution No. 428, when the buffer zone is not defined in a management plan, a 3-kilometer area from the limits of the Conservation Unit is adopted. It should also be pointed out that some Conservation Units do not legally have buffer zones. We have four such cases:

    a) areas located within the boundaries of the Conservation Unit, as is the case of Fazenda São Gabriel, which is located in Núcleo Santa Virginia of the Serra do Mar State Park, in São Paulo, and others;

    b) areas within the buffer zone of the Conservation Unit, traverse included in its management plan published by decree in the form of law;

    c) areas within the 3-km range from the limits of the Conservation Unit, buffer zone in the Conservation Units that do not have their management plan published in the form of law;

    d) areas located within the 3-km range from the limits of the Conservation Unit , only when adjacent (abutting) to the Conservation Units that do not legally have buffer zones—this is the case of indigenous areas, Private Natural Heritage Reserves (RPPNs) and Environmental Protection Areas (APAs).

  • Percentage of products with traceable origin of raw materials

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    • wdt_ID Indicador 2019
      1 Percentage of products with traceable origin of raw materials 100,00
  • Protected habitats, by type

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    • wdt_ID Protected habitats, by type, in ha¹ 2019
      1 Atlantic Rainforest 342,980
      2 Cerrado 307,612
      3 Mangrove 790
      4 Restinga 9,939
      5 Amazon 237,167
      6 Total 898,487

    1. The current biome and vegetation base established by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) was used for intersection of Suzano’s classes of vegetation. In this way, the Cerrado and Mangue classifications were readjusted. Moreover, the numbers used to compose this indicator were taken from the geoprocessing base of January 2020 (after unification of the systems) and, therefore, total conservation areas differs slightly from the total reported in the indicator “”Total area maintained by Suzano by type of land use“(base December 2019).

  • Protected habitats, by type and unit

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    • wdt_ID Protected habitats, by type and forestry unit, in ha - 2019¹ Aracruz/Mucuri² São Paulo³ Três Lagoas⁴ Imperatriz⁵ Total
      1 Atlantic Rainforest 260,141 79,243 3,596 - 342,980
      2 Cerrado 908 36,058 130,989 139,657 307,612
      3 Mangrove 790 - - - 790
      4 Restinga 9,939 - - - 9,939
      5 Amazon - - - 237,167 237,167
      6 Total 271,777 115,301 134,585 376,823 898,487

    1. To compose this indicator, the current IBGE base of biomes and types of vegetation was used for intersection of Suzano’s classes of vegetation. In this way, the Cerrado and Mangue classifications were readjusted. In addition, the numbers used to compose this indicator were taken from the geoprocessing base of January 2020 (after unification of the systems) and, therefore, total conservation areas differs slightly from the total reported in the indicator “”Total area maintained by Suzano by type of land use“(base December 2019).
    2. The Aracruz/Mucuri unit includes areas in the States of Bahia, Espírito Santo and Minas Gerais.
    3. The São Paulo unit includes areas in the States of São Paulo, Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro.
    4. The Três Lagoas unit includes only areas in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul.
    5. The Imperatriz unit includes areas in the States of Maranhão, Piauí, Pará and Tocantins.

  • Significant impacts of activities, products, and services on biodiversity

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    Context:

    Biodiversity conservation is an integral part of our forest management model. Currently, almost 40% of our forest base is set aside for conservation purposes, with different types of ecosystems located alongside rivers and among eucalyptus plantations, forming a mosaic landscape, with fragments of native vegetation interconnected by ecological corridors that help maintaining biodiversity in our areas.

    Suzano’s forestry activities follow its Forest Management Plan (FMP), a document that systematically describes the company’s forestry operations and the resources available to carry them out, as well as the practices and procedures adopted to sustainably achieve short, medium and long term management goals.

    In this sense, the construction and maintenance of roads and firebreaks, planting and maintenance of eucalyptus in areas of commercial planting, seedling production, forest harvesting, wood transport, and other support activities, including forest restoration and environmental monitoring, are part of forest management. All of these activities are subject to assessment through the Environmental Aspects and Impacts matrix and are audited annually by independent bodies, in order to comply with highly recognized certification mechanisms, which ensure that our forest management is environmentally correct and socially fair, besides being economically viable.

    Among the main aspects of forestry operations likely to cause impacts on biodiversity are: landscape modification, road kill of wild animals, as well as noise and accidental fires, leaks and spills that could alter wildlife and aquatic fauna, cause localized damage to the flora and temporary scaring of animals. For all negative aspects, there are defined control actions that involve awareness and training of involved parts, contractual requirements for suppliers, documented internal procedures, operational planning, socio-environmental recommendations and monitoring of biodiversity. On that basis, impacts related to fauna and flora are controlled and those considered relevant or significant are treated within the operational processes.

    On the other hand, based on our socio-environmental conduct, we also generate a positive impact in relation to maintaining biodiversity. In this sense, when we protect conservation areas and implement forest restoration where necessary, we maintain and improve the ecosystem services there, such as those for provision, regulation and support. Thus, in the monitoring of biodiversity that we carry out, we seek to acknowledge and understand the species and populations of native fauna and flora that inhabit our areas, so that we can implement measures that help protect them and favor the environmental quality of these places.

  • Size of areas with restoration process initiated per unit

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    • wdt_ID Indicator São Paulo Mato Grosso do Sul Espírito Santo-Bahia Maranhão Total
      1 Size of areas with restoration process started in 2019 per unit, in km² 12.89 1.10 14.24 0.15 28.38

    Additional information:

    The areas undergoing restoration maintained by Suzano were in different stages of the process at the end of 2019. In São Paulo, the areas are in the process of regeneration, following best conservation practices. In Mato Grosso do Sul, all areas in question are in the process of being restored, needing to meet the monitoring and maintenance schedule. In the states of Espírito Santo and Bahia, since there are numerous polygons (monitored according to two different methodologies), it is not possible to present the status in a descriptive form. Program indicators are monitored on a monthly basis, while ecological monitoring is conducted every two years. In the state of Maranhão, all areas are in the process of being restored, in very early stages.

    Some units are studying partnerships with third parties to restore certain areas of special interest. In São Paulo, for example, the Social and Environmental Development of the Forest Landscape Project is being developed, and eventual partnerships are also being made with the Serra do Mar State Park. The Espírito Santo and Bahia Forestry Unit has a Program called Nascentes do Mucuri, which promotes efforts in environmental education and qualification of local producers for the consolidation of a culture of preservation, fostering the design and consolidation of public policies and strategic partnerships to stimulate the entire chain involved in the process, in addition to the restoration of approximately 2,500 springs.

     

  • Total number of IUCN Red List species and national conservation list species with habitats in areas affected by operations, per biome

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    • wdt_ID IUCN Red List species with habitats in areas affected by operations, per biome - 2019¹ São Paulo Mato Grosso do Sul Espírito Santo-Bahia Maranhão Total
      1 Atlantic Rainforest 27 369 190 0 586
      2 Atlantic Rainforest/Cerrado 13 0 0 0 13
      3 Cerrado 0 27 0 6 33
      4 Amazon 0 0 0 39 39

    1. The Espírito Santo-Bahia and Maranhão units do not differentiate the species identified in the monitoring in near threatened (NT) or less concern (LC), since it is understood that it is the results of the categories with conservation status that contribute significantly to the critical analysis of monitoring.

  • Total number of IUCN Red List species and national conservation list species with habitats in areas affected by the operations of the organization, by level of extinction risk

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    • wdt_ID Species included with habitats in areas affected by the operations of the organization, by level of extinction risk - 2019¹ São Paulo Mato Grosso do Sul Espírito Santo-Bahia Maranhão Total
      1 Extinct (EX) 0 0 1 0 1
      2 Extinct in the Wild (EW) 0 0 0 0 0
      3 Critically at risk (CR) 0 0 19 2 21
      4 Endangered (EN) 2 1 55 8 66
      5 Vulnerable (VU) 11 14 115 30 170
      6 Near threatened (NT) 21 7 n/a n/a 28
      7 Least concern (LC) 6 374 n/a n/a 380

    1. The Espírito Santo-Bahia and Maranhão units do not differentiate the species identified in the monitoring in near threatened (NT) or less concern (LC), since it is understood that it is the results of the categories with conservation status that contribute significantly to the critical analysis of monitoring.