Carbon Stock, Removals, and Balance
Information on the calculation methodology and metrics for stock and removal of carbon by Suzano’s forestry base and balance between emissions and removal.
Related Material Issues
Removals: According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) special report – Global Warming of 1.5oC, carbon dioxide removal (CDR) refers to the process of removing CO2 from the atmosphere. As the opposite of emissions, practices or technologies that remove CO2 are often described as achieving ‘negative emissions’. There are two main types of CDR: either by improving existing natural processes that remove carbon from the atmosphere (e.g., by increasing its uptake by trees, soil, or other ‘carbon sinks’), or from chemical processes to, for example, capture CO2 directly from ambient air and store it elsewhere.
Conceptually, it is possible that techniques to remove CO₂ from the atmosphere (known as carbon dioxide removal or CDR) could contribute to limiting global warming to 1.5°C. One use of CDR could be to offset greenhouse gas emissions from sectors that cannot fully decarbonize their activities or that could take a long time to do so.
Afforestation (planting new trees in areas that haven’t been forested) and reforestation (replanting trees on land that was forested but has been converted to non-forested land) are also considered forms of CDR because they enhance natural CO₂ ‘sinks’¹
Anthropogenic removal, which refer to the removal of GHGs (greenhouse gases) from the atmosphere as a result of deliberate human activities, is also possible. This includes increasing biological CO2 sinks and using chemical engineering to obtain removal and long-term storage.²
1. Reference available at: https://www.ipcc.ch/sr15/faq/faq-chapter-4/#:~:text=Summary%3A%20Carbon%20dioxide%20removal%20(CDR,CO2%20from%20the%20atmosphere.&text=To%20achieve%20this%20temperature%20reduction,in%20’net%20negative%20emissions.
2. Reference available at: https://www.ipcc.ch/sr15/chapter/glossary/#:~:text=and%20Anthropogenic%20removals.-,Anthropogenic%20emissions,waste%20management%20and%20industrial%20processes.
Carbon removal at Suzano
Carbon removal takes place when forest biomass grows—for example, when a single tree is planted in a pasture area or when an already planted area increases from 500 hectares to 600 hectares.
The method used to estimate carbon removal in eucalyptus forests is in line with international methodologies, based on the IPCC guidelines (2003 and 2006). Carbon removal was calculated according to the “stock change method,” according to the IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories; Volume 4: Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use; Chapter 4: Forest Land.
Primary data from the Forest Inventory are used to calculate the volume of wood, and standard factors of the IPCC (2006) to convert the volume of wood into carbon stocks. In this way, GHG removal is calculated using the stock change method according to IPCC (2006) guidelines.
For areas set aside for conservation and restoration, the “gain-loss” method is used to calculate the volume of carbon removal. This methodology is also recommended by the IPCC Guidelines. This calculation uses information and data from the company’s forest register combined with carbon stock factors by phytophysiognomy and biome, and by successional stage (level of forest maturity).
All of these factors come from the most consolidated and recognized bibliographic references in Brazil and the IPCC.
The value of CO₂ removal linked to the environmental restoration process and the High Conservation Value areas is included in the removal values of the areas set aside for conservation.
When there is an increase in stock (growth of biomass), the volume is considered as “Direct removal due to land-use change.” When there is a decrease in stock (loss of biomass), the volume is considered as “Direct removal due to land-use change.”
wdt_ID Carbon removal, in tCO₂ equivalent¹ 2019 - Suzano S.A. – planted forests 2019 - Suzano S.A. – native vegetation 2019 - Suzano S.A. – total 2020 - Suzano S.A. – planted forests 2020 - Suzano S.A. – native vegetation 2020 - Suzano S.A. – total 1 Biogenic emissions from land use 16,696,140.75 n/a 16,696,140.75 33,063,426.44 n/a 33,063,426.44 3 Biogenic removal from land use -28,826,714.24 -3,345,980.39 -32,172,694.63 -48,231,510.96 -3,815,755.12 -52,047,266.08 4 Balance between emissions and removal from land use -12,130,573.49 -3,345,980.39 -15,476,553.88 -15,205,266.10 -3,815,755.12 -18,983,839.64
In 2020, we expanded our forest base with an increase of approximately 5% in planted areas and 8% in areas of native forests. In addition, for our carbon stock and removal inventory, we included 2-year-old eucalyptus plantations (included in Suzano’s register base), revised native forest removal factors consistent with up-to-date, cutting-edge academic studies, and improved productivity in our plantations.
We point out that the inventory of carbon stocks and removal by our forests has been verified by a third party.